Treatment and Therapy Drugs.Each Drug Rehabilitation Hospital has a special program for the victims of narcotics, psychotropic substances and addictive, here are some common methods applied in the Hospital Rehabilitation.
Analysis of Dependence Levels
Analyzing the dependence of victims on narcotics, addictive and psychotropic substances, to determine the level of treatment and the level of coaching for the victim, so teraphy and methods of treatment can be measured.
Poison Cleansing / Detoxification
Phase cleansing circulation of blood and other body organs in the body of an addict of narcotics, psychotropic substances or other addictive substances, so the blood becomes cleaner and the system returns to normal body metabolism. This process can be done through the following ways:
1) Cold Turkey (abrupt withdrawal) is the process of termination of the use of drugs suddenly without any substitution antidotum.
2) Phased or gradual substitution, for example with Codeine, Methadone, CPZ, or Clocaril conducted tap off (gradually) during 1-2 weeks.
3) Rapid detoxification: done with general anesthesia (6-12 hours).
4) Symptomatic: depending on the symptoms are felt.
In addition to detoxification, the DOCA system was implemented as one of the most advanced way. Opioid detoxification are effective and safe for early prevention of opioid dependence.
Detection of Secondary Infection
At this stage, usually a complete laboratory examination and testing support for detecting diseases or disorders that accompany the drug addicts, eg from hepatitis, tuberculosis, AIDS, sexual transmitted diseases, etc.. If the inspection found the disease, medical treatment is usually performed before the patient sent home to medical rehabilitation. A way to prevent disease transmission to other patients or health workers.
The principle of every house drug rehabilitation treatment in Indonesia is very diverse. There is an emphasis on the principle of medical treatment only, there is also a greater emphasis on spiritual principles. Or combine the two approaches with a balanced composition.
Mental Development (Aftercare)
Before returning to the community, the patients who are recovering normally housed in a special environment for some time until the patient is mentally and spiritually ready to return to its original environment. This happens because most of the patients dropped out of school and do not generally have adequate intelligence capabilities. As a result, many of them to be low down after exit from the home rehabilitation.
This phase holds vital pernan, where sufferers are grown back a sense of confidence in people, fostering a spirit and confidence that he will recover and return to normal, socializing with people and their environment. The main thing is mental, spiritual guidance, faith and piety, and social sensitivity. This process can include physical and spiritual formation programs.
The period of aftercare processes vary widely, because this stage is the most important stage and is crucial to prevent the patient back to the original environment. Based on the statistical success rate of drug dependence treatment is medically case is not optimal (only 15-20%).
Patients bathed with warm water, drink lots, eat nutritious foods in small amounts and often and diverted attention from the drug. If not managed to rescue a doctor. Users must be convinced that withdrawal symptoms peak within 3-5 days and after 10 days will be lost.
Lowering Risk (Harm Reduction):
- Using a disposable syringe
- Mensuci hamakan (sterilized) needles
- Changing habits by inhaling or injecting oral tablet
- Stopping drug use at all
What to do if someone was drunk:
- Do not let him drive a vehicle
- Give him to drink plenty of water
- Try to get him to eat
- Do not let him alone
- Keep him out of dangerous places, such as highways, bridges, balconies, swimming pool, the sea.
If addicts do not realize (fainting):
- Check for breathing
- Keeping the respiratory tract so that there is no blockage
- Lay her on her side, if the vomiting, food waste does not clog the airways.
Serious symptoms that require medical attention:
- There is conscious or semiconscious
- Respiration is slow.
- The skin cold, pale or blue
Return to normal life is not something that is easy for an addict, the easiest thing to eliminate ngedrug habit is to not start taking it at all, but whether that easy?
If it is already starting to become mandatory, will continue to consume opium during his life will be more difficult to stop and make it increasingly dependent. Some of the tips below to help the addict to end their suffering, despite the support environment and the intentions of addicts into their main capital recovery.
Tip Changed tips (Cured)
- Avoid fellow users
- Honest and open
- Positive thinking
- Avoid things that are easy to provoke stress
- Sharing with people you trust
- Do not consumptive
- Looking for limited activity
- Go into the spiritual
- Be patient and accept the situation as it is
Tip-Tip Half Way House
- Avoid drug user friends.
- Try not to relate intimately.
- For the time between playing and at home (parents).
- Do not consumptive with cosmetic purposes.
- Stay in touch and open.
- Avoid the nature of a fait a compli.
- Keep proper appointment.
Tips Tips For Parents
- Good listeners
- Full attention
- Wise made the decision and ask for opinions
- Tough talk while concerns regarding the sensitive
- Give a constructive response
- Give a clear message
- Example in behavior
Characteristics of Users
The characteristics of drug users
- Weight loss drastically.
- Dispose of large and small water substandard.
- The eyes look sunken and red, pale face, and lips blackish.
- Constipation or abdominal pain for no apparent reason.
- Hand full of red spots, such as mosquito bites and there are signs of incision scars. Scratches and discoloration of the skin at the injection site.
- When reprimanded or scolded, he even showed defiance.
- His emotions up and down and do not hesitate to hit someone or speaking harshly against family members or people around him.
- Erratic appetite.
- Highly sensitive and fast bored.
- Talk cedal or pelo.
- Road stagger
- Lazy and often forget responsibilities and routine tasks.
- Experience heart pounding.
- Experiencing headaches.
- Experiencing pain / aching joints.
- Removing the excessive tears.
- Removing the excessive sweating.
- Indicates indifference and away from family.
- Always run out of money.
- Frequent coughs and colds prolonged, typically occurs when the symptoms of "withdrawal".
- Often lie and broken promise with a variety of reasons.
- Often met with persons unknown families, left without saying goodbye and go home after midnight.
- Frequent nightmares.
- Frequent yawning.
- Tend to withdraw from family events and more fun confining dikamar
- His attitude tends to be manipulative and suddenly looked nice when there wants, such as need money to buy drugs.
- Like to steal money at home, school or place of work and pawn valuables at home. Likewise with his valuables, many are missing.
- Fear of water, if exposed will be sore, so they are so lazy bath.
- The time is often spent at home in the bedroom, toilet, storeroom, a dark room, bathroom, or other quiet areas.
- Avoidance of responsibility appropriate, lazy completing routine tasks at home
Withdrawal symptoms or drug withdrawal:
- His eyes narrowed
- The nose and watery eyes
- Sneeze, sneezing
- A lot of sweat
- Muscle pain Bone and joint
Model of rehabilitation therapy that can be used to help a person break away from addiction and behavior change for the better.
Moral Therapy Model
This model is commonly known by the public as well as the approach is usually done by religious / moral emphasis on individual sin and weakness. The model is very appropriate therapy as applied to communities that still adhere to religious values and morality in the place of origin, because the model is run concurrently with the concept of good and bad are taught by religion. So it is not surprising that moral therapy model that is the bedrock of the legal justification for war against drug abuse.
Models of Social Therapy
The model uses the concept of community treatment programs, where addiction to drugs is seen as a phenomenon of social deviation (social disorder). The purpose of this treatment model is to direct behavior toward deviant social behavior is more feasible. It is based on the awareness that most drug addicts are almost always involved in social action, including a criminal action. The advantages of this model is its attention to behavioral addiction drug addicts are concerned, not on drugs of abuse.
Prakreknya can be done through lectures, seminars, and especially therapy group (group encounters). The goal is nothing but the train social responsibility of each individual, so that the mistakes done one person be the responsibility together. This is the uniqueness of the model of social therapy, namely the proper functioning of the community such as a change agent (the agent of change.
Medical Therapy Model
This model stems from some of the concepts in physiological or metabolic theory, which views the behavior of drug addiction as something that occurs due to etiological factors or heredity. There are two kinds of therapy models based on this concept.
First, the concept of cure drug addiction by using other drugs. An example is the model of methadone treatment for opiate addicts. This therapy is based on a theory of Dole and Nyswander stating that opiate addiction is the result of metabolic deficiency, so it must be straightened by providing methadone.
Second, the concept of cure drug addiction by way of looking at drug addiction as a disease. From this biological theory approach was born the concept of "disease" which when translated means "disease", or it could be interpreted as discomfort. Therapy for the concept of "disease" is very different to look at behavioral addiction therapy as a social aberration. In this therapy is considered an addict as a patient, where they will be fostered and closely monitored by team doctors. The drawback of this therapy is its "hard", in which patients were rehabilitated with the concept of allergy. Because the patient has an allergy to drugs, then they should not consume a lifetime.
Recognizing these limitations, the concept of addiction as a disease of great importance on gathering (fellowship) of those who have the disease of drug addiction to become supporters of each other.
Psychological Therapy Model
This model is adapted from a psychological theory of Mc Lellin, et al mention that the behavior of drug addiction is the fruit of emotion that do not function properly because of a conflict, so that addicts take drugs to alleviate or remove options psychological burden. The model is concerned with emotional healing therapy of drug addicts are concerned, where if his emotions could be controlled so they will not have any more problems with drugs. Types of psychological therapy model is usually a lot done on personal counseling, both in rehabilitation centers and in private therapy.
Therapy Culture Model
This model states that behavior is the result of drug addiction is a lifelong socialization within the social environment or culture. In this case, the family as well as the environment can be categorized as a "particular social and cultural environment".
The rationale is that the practice of drug abuse by certain family members is the result of accumulation of all the problems that occur within the family concerned. So this model a lot of emphasis on the therapeutic process for the family members of these drug addicts.